Dronument: A system for documentation of historical
monuments by a team of unmanned aerial vehicles

   Official project site in the Czech language: dronument.cz

   The MRS Group hosted DRONUMENT Workshop on 12th August, 2021

Some of the historical sites can be viewed online at: mrs.felk.cvut.cz/3d-model-viewer


 

 

Images of archeological sites or heritage buildings have been traditionaly captured outdoor using kites, balloons or even planes. In recent years, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have been widely used in the heritage sector. This technology can be used for monitoring of outdoor archeological sites, excavated objects, or for analysis of roof conditions, and likewise for monitoring of artifacts within interiors of historical structures. UAVs can carry various sensors, such as high-resolution cameras or even laser scanners. This allows to create both still images, videos, and data for off-line detailed analysis.

The goal of the Dronument project is to create an aerial platform enabling interior and exterior documentation of heritage sites. This includes development of software for data acquisition and processing, as well as system for data distribution amongst the heritage sector. Typical documentation interests in interiors are either artistic elements, such as paintings, altars, statues, mosaics, frescores, stained glass, pillars, or pipe organs, and non-artistic elements, such as building structure changes (e.g., wall clefts).

Documentation of historical structures with human-unreachable areas is difficult task for archaeologists and restorers. Our Multi-robot Systems group (MRS) from Department of Cybernetics at Czech Technical University in Prague helps with scanning of such areas using our own drones. The aerial system, which is currently in development, was already deployed in several historical objects within the Czech Republic and Poland in order to document interior artifacts and structures, and exterior facades and roofs. List of these objects is given by the multimedia list below.

The video was featured in IEEE Robotics Video Fridays.

 

 

Multimedia documentation and experimental evaluation of designed methods

Saint Nicolas Church at Old Town Square in Prague


Church of St. Maurice in Olomouc (interior 3-D model, facade 3-D model)


Plumlov Chateau (3-D model: south, north facade)


St. Jacob the Great and St. Anne Church in Stará Voda (3-D model)


Archbishop’s Chateau Kroměříž (UNESCO World Heritage)


Vranov nad Dyjí State Chateau



Klein Family Mausoleum in Sobotín (3-D model)


Church of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary Šternberk


St. Mary Magdalene Chapel in Jindřichův Hradec


Chapel of All Saints in Chateau Telč (UNESCO World Heritage)


Grotto Gorzanów

Church of our Lady of the Snows in Olomouc

 

Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in Prostĕjov

 

Church of the Holy Trinity in Kopřivná

 

Church of St. Bartholomew in Zábřeh

 

Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary in Nový Malín

 

Church of St. Mary Magdalene in Chlumín

 

Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Cholina

 

Church of the Holy Trinity in Běhařovice

 

Church of Saint Barbara in Šumperk

 

Publications

  1. Jindřiška Deckerová, Jan Faigl and Vít Krátký. Traveling Salesman Problem with neighborhoods on a sphere in reflectance transformation imaging scenarios. Expert Systems with Applications 198:116814, March 2022. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @article{deckerova2022tspns,
    	author = "Deckerová, Jindřiška and Faigl, Jan and Krátký, Vít",
    	title = "Traveling Salesman Problem with neighborhoods on a sphere in reflectance transformation imaging scenarios",
    	journal = "Expert Systems with Applications",
    	volume = 198,
    	pages = 116814,
    	year = 2022,
    	month = "March",
    	issn = "0957-4174",
    	doi = "10.1016/j.eswa.2022.116814",
    	pdf = "https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957417422002718?via=ihub"
    }
    
  2. Vít Krátký, Pavel Petráček, Tiago Nascimento, Michaela Čadilová, Milan Škobrtal, Pavel Stoudek and Martin Saska. Safe Documentation of Historical Monuments by an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information 10(11):738/1–16, October 2021. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @article{kratky2021documentation,
    	author = "Krátký, Vít and Petráček, Pavel and Nascimento, Tiago and Čadilová, Michaela and Škobrtal, Milan and Stoudek, Pavel and Saska, Martin",
    	title = "Safe Documentation of Historical Monuments by an Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle",
    	journal = "ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information",
    	volume = 10,
    	year = 2021,
    	month = "October",
    	number = 11,
    	pages = "738/1--16",
    	issn = "2220-9964",
    	pdf = "data/papers/kratky2021dronument.pdf",
    	doi = "10.3390/ijgi10110738"
    }
    
  3. Daniel Smrcka, Tomas Baca, Tiago Nascimento and Martin Saska. Admittance Force-Based UAV-Wall Stabilization and Press Exertion for Documentation and Inspection of Historical Buildings. In 2021 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS). June 2021, 552–559. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{smrcka2021admittance,
    	title = "Admittance Force-Based UAV-Wall Stabilization and Press Exertion for Documentation and Inspection of Historical Buildings",
    	author = "Smrcka, Daniel and Baca, Tomas and Nascimento, Tiago and Saska, Martin",
    	booktitle = "2021 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS)",
    	pages = "552--559",
    	year = 2021,
    	month = "June",
    	organization = "IEEE",
    	pdf = "data/papers/ICUAS_2021_Dan.pdf",
    	doi = "10.1109/ICUAS51884.2021.9476873"
    }
    
  4. Vít Krátký, Alfonso Alcántara, Jesús Capitán, Petr Štěpán, Martin Saska and Aníbal Ollero. Autonomous Aerial Filming with Distributed Lighting by a Team of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 6(4):7580-7587, October 2021. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @article{kratky2021aerialfilming,
    	author = "{Krátký}, Vít and {Alcántara}, Alfonso and {Capitán}, Jesús and {Štěpán}, Petr and {Saska}, Martin and {Ollero}, Aníbal",
    	title = "{Autonomous Aerial Filming with Distributed Lighting by a Team of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles}",
    	journal = "IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters",
    	year = 2021,
    	month = "October",
    	pdf = "data/papers/aerialCinematographyRal.pdf",
    	doi = "10.1109/LRA.2021.3098811",
    	pages = "7580-7587",
    	volume = 6,
    	number = 4
    }
    
  5. V Krátký, P Petráček, V Spurný and M Saska. Autonomous Reflectance Transformation Imaging by a Team of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5(2):2302-2309, April 2020. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @article{kratky2020ral,
    	author = "V. {Kr\'{a}tk\'{y}} and P. {Petr\'{a}\v{c}ek} and V. {Spurn\'{y}} and M. {Saska}",
    	journal = "IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters",
    	title = "Autonomous Reflectance Transformation Imaging by a Team of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles",
    	year = 2020,
    	volume = 5,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "2302-2309",
    	doi = "10.1109/LRA.2020.2970646",
    	month = "April",
    	pdf = "data/papers/kratky2020ral.pdf"
    }
    
  6. P Petráček, V Krátký and M Saska. Dronument: System for Reliable Deployment of Micro Aerial Vehicles in Dark Areas of Large Historical Monuments. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 5(2):2078-2085, April 2020. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @article{petracek2020ral,
    	author = "P. {Petr\'{a}\v{c}ek} and V. {Kr\'{a}tk\'{y}} and M. {Saska}",
    	journal = "IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters",
    	title = "Dronument: System for Reliable Deployment of Micro Aerial Vehicles in Dark Areas of Large Historical Monuments",
    	year = 2020,
    	volume = 5,
    	number = 2,
    	pages = "2078-2085",
    	keywords = "Aerial systems: applications; Aerial systems: Perception and autonomy;Localization",
    	doi = "10.1109/LRA.2020.2969935",
    	issn = "2377-3774",
    	month = "April",
    	pdf = "data/papers/petracek2020ral.pdf"
    }
    
  7. V Walter, N Staub, A Franchi and M Saska. UVDAR System for Visual Relative Localization With Application to Leader–Follower Formations of Multirotor UAVs. IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters 4(3):2637-2644, July 2019. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @article{uvdar_dirfol,
    	author = "V. {Walter} and N. {Staub} and A. {Franchi} and M. {Saska}",
    	journal = "IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters",
    	title = "UVDAR System for Visual Relative Localization With Application to Leader–Follower Formations of Multirotor UAVs",
    	year = 2019,
    	volume = 4,
    	number = 3,
    	pages = "2637-2644",
    	doi = "10.1109/LRA.2019.2901683",
    	issn = "2377-3766",
    	month = "July",
    	pdf = "data/papers/walterRAL2019.pdf"
    }
    
  8. V Walter, N.Staub, M Saska and A Franchi. Mutual Localization of UAVs based on Blinking Ultraviolet Markers and 3D Time-Position Hough Transform. In 14th IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE 2018). 2018. PDF BibTeX

    @inproceedings{uvdd2,
    	author = "V. Walter and N.Staub and M. Saska and A. Franchi",
    	title = "Mutual Localization of UAVs based on Blinking Ultraviolet Markers and 3D Time-Position Hough Transform",
    	booktitle = "14th IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE 2018)",
    	pdf = "data/papers/uvdd2.pdf",
    	year = 2018
    }
    
  9. M Saska, V Krátký, V Spurný and T Báča. Documentation of dark areas of large historical buildings by a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles using model predictive control. In 2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA). 2017, 1–8. URL PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{saska2017etfa,
    	author = "M. Saska and V. Kr\'{a}tk\'{y} and V. Spurn\'{y} and T. B\'{a}\v{c}a",
    	booktitle = "2017 22nd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA)",
    	title = "Documentation of dark areas of large historical buildings by a formation of unmanned aerial vehicles using model predictive control",
    	year = 2017,
    	pages = "1--8",
    	doi = "10.1109/ETFA.2017.8247654",
    	url = "http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8247654/",
    	pdf = "data/papers/saska17etfa.pdf",
    	month = "Sep."
    }
    
  10. Vaclav Pritzl, Matous Vrba, Petr Stepan and Martin Saska. Cooperative Navigation and Guidance of a Micro-Scale Aerial Vehicle by an Accompanying UAV using 3D LiDAR Relative Localization. In 2022 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS). June 2022, 526–535. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{pritzl2022icuas,
    	author = "{Pritzl}, Vaclav and {Vrba}, Matous and {Stepan}, Petr and {Saska}, Martin",
    	booktitle = "2022 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS)",
    	title = "{Cooperative Navigation and Guidance of a Micro-Scale Aerial Vehicle by an Accompanying UAV using 3D LiDAR Relative Localization}",
    	year = 2022,
    	month = "June",
    	organization = "IEEE",
    	pdf = "data/papers/ICUAS22_Pritzl.pdf",
    	pages = "526--535",
    	doi = "10.1109/ICUAS54217.2022.9836116"
    }
    
  11. Daniel Hert, Tomas Baca, Pavel Petracek, Vit Kratky, Vojtech Spurny, Matej Petrlik, Matous Vrba, David Zaitlik, Pavel Stoudek, Viktor Walter, Petr Stepan, Jiri Horyna, Vaclav Pritzl, Giuseppe Silano, Daniel Bonilla Licea, Petr Stibinger, Robert Penicka, Tiago Nascimento and Martin Saska. MRS Modular UAV Hardware Platforms for Supporting Research in Real-World Outdoor and Indoor Environments. In 2022 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS). June 2022, 1264–1273. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{MRS2022ICUAS_HW,
    	author = "{Hert}, Daniel and {Baca}, Tomas and {Petracek}, Pavel and {Kratky}, Vit and {Spurny}, Vojtech and {Petrlik}, Matej and {Vrba}, Matous and {Zaitlik}, David and {Stoudek}, Pavel and {Walter}, Viktor and {Stepan}, Petr and {Horyna}, Jiri and {Pritzl}, Vaclav and {Silano}, Giuseppe and {Bonilla Licea}, Daniel and {Stibinger}, Petr and {Penicka}, Robert and {Nascimento}, Tiago and {Saska}, Martin",
    	booktitle = "2022 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS)",
    	title = "{MRS Modular UAV Hardware Platforms for Supporting Research in Real-World Outdoor and Indoor Environments}",
    	year = 2022,
    	month = "June",
    	organization = "IEEE",
    	pdf = "data/papers/ICUAS22_MRS_HW.pdf",
    	pages = "1264--1273",
    	doi = "10.1109/ICUAS54217.2022.9836083"
    }
    
  12. Jan Bednar, Matej Petrlik, Kelen Cristiane Teixeira Vivaldini and Martin Saska. Deployment of Reliable Visual Inertial Odometry Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Real-world Environment. In 2022 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS). June 2022. PDF, DOI BibTeX

    @inproceedings{BednarICUAS22_VIO,
    	author = "{Bednar}, Jan and {Petrlik}, Matej and {Teixeira Vivaldini}, Kelen Cristiane and {Saska}, Martin",
    	booktitle = "2022 International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems (ICUAS)",
    	title = "{Deployment of Reliable Visual Inertial Odometry Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Real-world Environment}",
    	year = 2022,
    	month = "June",
    	organization = "IEEE",
    	doi = "10.1109/ICUAS54217.2022.9836067",
    	pdf = "data/papers/ICUAS22_VIO_Bednar.pdf"
    }
    

 

Other research activities


Partners

Územní odborné pracoviště NPÚ in Olomouc (Heritage Institute)

Fakulta restaurování, University of Pardubice (Faculty of restoration)


 

expo2020

The DRONUMENT drone was

at EXPO2020 in Dubai

expo2020

 


 

Project results in News

Olomoucký sloup zapsaný v UNESCO čeká obnova, před ní ho nasnímal dron   IDnes [Czech]
Drony mapují interiéry vzácných památek. Čeští vědci si připsali světové prvenství   Krajské listy [Czech]
Drony ČVUT mapují jako první na světě útroby památek. V plánu byl i Černobyl   Seznam zprávy [Czech]
Drony z ČVUT mapují kostel sv. Mořice   Olomouc.cz [Czech]
ČVUT: Drony z Fakulty elektrotechnické mapují kostel sv. Mořice v Olomouci   Parlamentni listy [Czech]
V chrámu ve Staré Vodě na Libavé se roztočily vrtule projektu Dronument   iDNES.cz [Czech]
Kostel ve Staré Vodě na Libavé mapovaly inteligentní bezpilotní drony   Seznam zprávy [Czech]
Drony v kostele sv. Anny a sv. Jakuba Většího ve Staré Vodě (začátek v 1h20min)   90' ČT [Czech]
Drony v kostele sv. Anny a sv. Jakuba Většího ve Staré Vodě (začátek v 47min)   90' ČT [Czech]
Dron létá sám do nepřístupných míst. Pomáhá mapovat historické objekty   Novinky.cz [Czech]
Tým z ČVUT představil dron mapující špatně přístupná místa památek   ČTK [Czech]
Co památkářům trvá měsíce, dokážou za den. Interiér barokního kostela ve Staré Vodě mapují drony   Český rozhlas Radiožurnál [Czech]
VIDEO: Barokním kostelem v Libavé létají drony. Prozkoumávají těžko dostupná místa   iRozhlas [Czech]
GALLERY: Czech-made robot drones help map rare historical objects   Expats [English]
Svatostánky dron prozkoumá lépe. Ušetří čas i peníze   Deník Metro [Czech]
Drones al servicio de conservacionistas de monumentos históricos   Radio Prague International [Spanish]
V chrámu ve Staré Vodě na Libavé se roztočily vrtule projektu Dronument   24 Zprávy [Czech]
Co památkářům trvá měsíce, dokážou za den. Interiér barokního kostela ve Staré Vodě mapovaly inteligentní drony   Český rozhlas Olomouc [Czech]
Drony v kupoli kostela   Události ČT [Czech]
Drony dokumentují interiéry kostela ve Staré Vodě (min 18:00)   CNN Prima News [Czech]
Robotické drony z ČVUT snímají interiéry kostelů a zámků, vystačí si samy, žádný operátor je řídit nemusí         Euro.cz [Czech]
Robotické drony z Fakulty elektrotechnické ČVUT pomáhají mapovat historické objekty         Technický týdeník [Czech]
Robotické drony pomáhají mapovat historické objekty         SCIENCEmag [Czech]
V chrámu ve Staré Vodě na Libavé se roztočily vrtule projektu Dronument         IDNES.cz [Czech]
Kostel ve Staré Vodě na Libavé mapovaly inteligentní bezpilotní drony         Olomoucká drbna [Czech]
Kostel ve Staré Vodě na Libavé mapovaly inteligentní bezpilotní drony         ČTK České noviny [Czech]
Drony pomáhají památkářům, na dálku dokážou změřit i vlhkost vzduchu         ČT24 [Czech]
Robotics and conservation experts turn to drones to map state of historic sites         Interview for Czech radio [English]
Zmapování stavu památek díky dronům   Main news of Czech TV [Czech]
CT 24 Pryč s lešením, budoucnost památek leží na křídlech dronů   Czech TV news [Czech]
Dron jako pomůcka památkářů. Inovátoři nemyslí jen na budoucnost, ale i minulost   www.ceskatelevize.cz [Czech]
Drony mapovaly kostel sv. Mikuláše v Praze   Main News of Czech TV [Czech]
Drony mapovaly kostel sv. Mikuláše   Live 10 min reportage at Czech TV [Czech]
Drony zblízka zjistí stav památek na špatně dostupných místech   Czech radio [Czech]
Drony se dostanou skutečně všude, momentálně pomáhají památkářům   Czech radio [Český rozhlas] PLUS [Czech]
Drony zjistí stav památek na špatně dostupných místech   Týden [Czech]
Drony zblízka zjistí stav památek na špatně dostupných místech   Blesk [Czech]
Kam člověk nemůže, tam nastrčí... helikoptérku. Bezpilotní drony pomáhají mapovat stav památek ve šternberské farnosti   www.krajskelisty.cz/ [Czech]
Robotici z Fakulty elektrotechnické ČVUT pomáhají památkářům mapovat historické objekty   www.itbiz.cz [Czech]
Robotici z ČVUT mapují historické objekty pomocí dronů   aktualnizpravy.cz [Czech]
Dron jako pomůcka památkářů. Inovátoři nemyslí jen na budoucnost, ale i minulost   www.regionplzen.cz [Czech]
Dron může pomoci identifikovat sochy v kostele sv. Mikuláše   ČTK [Czech]
Drony vědců z ČVUT fotí těžko přístupná místa v kostelích. Pomohou kunsthistorikům i restaurátorům   Hospodářské noviny [Czech]
Drony z ČVUT zmapovaly kostel sv. Mikuláše   SCIENCEmag.cz [Czech]
ABC TV: České drony v chrámu sv. Mikuláše slouží vědě   ABC [Czech]
Drony v kostele mapovaly těžce přístupná místa   Czech Radio [Český rozhlas] [Czech]
Dron může pomoci identifikovat sochy v kostele sv. Mikuláše   Blesk [Czech]
Robotici z ČVUT mapují historické objekty pomocí dronů   21. století [Czech]
Drony zblízka zjistí stav památek na špatně dostupných místech   PRO PAMÁTKY [Czech]
Tým z ČVUT učí drony, jak létat bez vedení pilotem. Stroje tak můžou dokumentovat historické objekty   Hospodářské noviny [Czech]

 

 Acknowledgment

 

    This research was/is supported by project NAKI II no. DG18P02OVV069, CTU grant no. SGS17/187/OHK3/3T/13, and project CESNET.